Traffic.me: Mapping live traffic with ArcGIS Runtime SDK and HERE Technologies using Android App Developer

by Nicholas Pulsone
Geovis Class Project @RyersonGeo, SA8905, Fall 2018

Topic & Background

Driving through congested parts of Toronto is a tedious and troubling problem that many people would like to avoid. The goal was to create a mobile application using android app developer that can use traffic data as a live input to map traffic patterns across North America. Many companies such as HERE Technologies record traffic information that updates regularly and can be used to map and observe traffic patterns across the entire world. Using android app developer, it is easy to add software developer packages such as ArcGIS Runtime SDK to develop new tools that can be used on a day-to-day basis.

Data

The first problem when creating an app for a purpose or goal is where to find the data. As previously mentioned, HERE technologies is a company owned by NOKIA and currently has its headquarters in Amsterdam. HERE technologies records live weather, routing and traffic information using a combination of both geolocation and intelligence algorithms. Geolocation services that HERE tracks include:

  • Devices with location or GPS tracking
  • Tables or other devices with WIFI and signal strength
  • Phones while measuring varying strength of reception via cell tower signals

HERE technologies contains a global database of over 93 million cellular towers and over 2.3 billion Wi-Fi hotspots which record and store data. The data needed to be able to map varying levels of traffic or traffic density as well as potential collisions or other disruptions affecting driving conditions. The data would need to be able to be displayed visually on a mapping platform and accessible by android app developer software.

Methods

There are multiple ways a live traffic application can be created using data from HERE technologies:

  1. Creating a live traffic app using HERE API and map creator
  2. Creating a live traffic app using HERE data in ArcGIS Runtime SDK (requires ArcGIS developer license)

The methods in this blog will be describing how to create an application using the data from HERE technologies with ArcGIS Runtime SDK.

The first step is to download the needed requirements. First, is to download the newest version of android app developer studio. Currently, the newest version of Android App developer studio is 3.2.1 and available online for Windows, Mac and Linux. Once android app developer is downloaded, the next step is download the second part of the software that will be used in this creation, which is the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for Android 4.0.

The second step is to set the back-end of the application. After specifying the operating system the application will work on, and inputting the name of the application, the first thing to set up is include the ESRI bintray for ArcGIS.

As ESRI’s repository is not open source, the url must be specified to manually add the url for the ESRI bintray. Then the app dependencies need to updated to include the ArcGIS Runtime SDK.

Once the Gradle scripts were synced, the next step was to add a map view for the app. By default, we can remove the text view element and manually create a map view with the following syntax:

After adding the map view for the data, the next step was to specify a basemap then access the data:

The above syntax is a sample of how a basemap and starting location can be specified upon opening. The final step was to be able to access the data. HERE technologies has collaborated with ESRI to develop a world traffic service that can be accessed from mobile and desktop services using the url:

http://traffic.arcgis.com/arcgis/rest/services/World/Traffic/MapServer

Additionally, ESRI and HERE technologies have also created a layer available on the ArcGIS developer portal to users with an ArcGIS developer license. Once the layer is accessible, it is important to open and save the layer in ArcGIS online and enable sharing and public access permissions. As layers used in ArcGIS require a login to be viewed, the next step is to setup a proxy to bypass the login error that would prevent the data from being used, even if permissions are set to public.

To setup a proxy using the ArcGIS developer server proxy, the application must be authenticated and registered in the ArcGIS developer platform. Once registered, the user has access to many services such as a proxy service which will be used along with the traffic layer.

To enable this proxy under services, we must specify what type of proxy service and request limit the proxy will use. Once the requirements are specified, the service outputs a URL which contains a proxy service from ArcGIS.

To use the proxy, simply add the link as a layer from web in ArcGIS online, and the proxy should be active.

Figure 1: Adding Services to ArcGIS Online Map

The final step was to add in the url for the ArcGIS online webmap which contains the traffic data, into android app developer.

Once the url was added into the Android App developer; just click Sync & Run and the app will appear on your device similar to the picture below!

Figure 2: Example of Traffic App

Limitations

A limitation that was experienced while coding the application was ease of use. Without using a legend or slider, it is very hard to distinguish which areas of Toronto are being affected by what kind of problem. The symbology can be changed, however integrating a legend as a button feature in android app developer was more useful and ultimately was included in the final iteration of the app shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Final Iteration of Traffic.me

 

Mapping Toronto Green Space in Android

By Jacob Lovie | GeoVis Project Assignment                @RyersonGeo | SA8905 | Fall 2018

Introduction

With today’s technology becoming more and more mobile, and the ability to access everything you need on your mobile device, it is more important than even to ensure that GIS is evolving to meet these trends. My GeoVisualization project focused on designing an android application to allow users to explore Toronto’s green space and green initiatives, making layers such as parks and bike stations accessible in the palm of your hand. However, it is not just having access to this that is important. What’s important when working with these technologies is that a user can explore the map and retrieve the information seamlessly and efficiently.

Data and Hosting Feature Services

All the data for the project was retrieved from the city of Toronto’s open data portal. From there, all the data was uploaded to ArcGIS Online and set up as hosted feature services. A base map was also designed using ArcGIS for Developers and hosted. The application was able to target these hosted feature layer and use them in the map, making the size of the app small. The symbology and setup of the hosted feature layers was also done in ArcGIS online, so the app didn’t have to make any changes or set symbology when it wasn’t necessary.

Methods

The developer environment that I worked in to design my app was Android Studio, the baseline for designing any android apps. The programming language used in Android Studio is Java. Within Android Studio, the functionality of ArcGIS Runtime Software Developer Kit (SDK) for Android can be brought in, bringing in all the libraries and functions associated with ArcGIS Runtime SDK for Android. With this I was able to use ArcGIS functionality in android, designing maps, accessing hosted feature services, and perform geoprocessing.

Understanding how ArcGIS SDK for Android worked with in Android Studio was an important key in designing my app. When creating a map, I first had to create a Map object. An object is a variable that is of a certain datatype. If you were talking about having a text object as a variable that could be called, it would be of datatype string, and the word itself would be an object that is callable and referential. The Map object is what is displayed in an activity window (more on this later), which is what the user visualizes when using the app. The map can be set to view a certain area, which was Toronto in my app. A user can pan around the map like they would on any interactive map without having additional coding in Android Studio (it is natural to the Map datatype). The Map also has associated Layer objects that have their own set of parameters.

While designing my app, any time I would want something done in my design, such as creating a map object or adding a layer to a map object, I created a function that wold performs an action. This reduces repetition in the code when I attempted to do something complex multiple times. I designed 3 functions. The first was to create a Map, the second was to add a Layer that could be activated and deactivated in the Map through a switch that would be displayed in the main Activity Window. The final function added a layer that could be queried and would extract information from that layer.

When designing an android app, there are many fine details that are not necessarily considered when using an app on your phone. Simple things like having a window or text appear, opening a second window, or displaying information were things I very much appreciated after designing the app. Within my app, I wanted to display a second activity window to display information on neighbourhoods in Toronto when the user touched them. Within Android Studio this required creating a second activity window, and transferring the information obtained in the map to the second activity. This was done through my displayInformation function. I was then able to create a second activity and display this information using a custom list display to show the attribute data of a selected neighbourhood.

     >>>>>>>>>>>     

Setting up the display in Android Studio is relatively simple. There is an interface that allows you to anchor different objects to parts of the screen. This allows the app to run smoothly across all devices, not based on the size and ratio of the device. The switches in my Main Activity window were anchored to the top left, and to each other. My Map is in the background, but appears as white in this activity window.

The Application

Once all the coding and testing was completed, running the app was simple. I was able to bundle my code and send it to my personal phone, a Galaxy S9. The functions called the hosted service layers and displayed them in the map (Wifi or internet connection was required). I was also able to click on neighbourhoods and it would open my second activity that displayed the attribute information of that neighbourhood. If you want a more in-depth look at my code, it is available at https://github.com/jclovie/GeoVis-Ryerson/.

New York City Automobile Collisions

Creating An Interactive Web Map

By: Joshua Ali

Geovis project Assignment @RyersonGeo, SA8905, Fall 2018

Data

The data used for this map was retrieved from New York City Open Data (https://opendata.cityofnewyork.us/) and automobile collisions data set, it has information on collision from 2011 to present.  This will have all information needed for the map.

Using Mapbox

The interactive map will be using map box GeoLibrary JavaScript, so an account must be created with map box.  This is a free sign up and a pay as you go account (pretty much if you use it a lot you have to pay) (https://www.mapbox.com/signup).

Creating the Base Map

The next step is to create the base map that was used to display my data.  To write the code I used a text writing software.  The two I switched between using is Sublime (https://www.sublimetext.com) and Codepen, (https://codepen.io) they are both free software’s that can be used.  Now you will need to write a html doc that will be used to display your map.  The doc was written below for optimal settings and will be built upon with more code later to customize the map.

Now that the setting style for the map functions have been in place, the map needs to be linked with a mapbox access token that is created from my account.  By doing this the html doc will be linked to my account.

A script was created using the var function to create a new map that will use as style option that is linked to your account.  In my case I decided to use the dark map background as my style for the map.  Also, in the script below the latitude and longitude was selected so when the map is opened it will be looking at New York City.

With all the current script within the text editor this document can be opened with chrome browser to show the base map.  The image below shows what would come up.

Customizing the Base Map

Now that the base map of the map is created, I can begin adding and customizing NYC automobile collisions to the map.  To connect the data downloaded to the map created they first need to be in the same project folder as the base map html doc made above.

To do this a local server has to be made on the computer so the base map made can draw information from the NYC database to be projected. The api also needs this to continuously update the projected data to the interactive tool that will be added later.  This was done by downloading python and running Python’s SimpleHTTPServer. Using the command control panel, the local server was run on my laptop.  This is useful because changes made in the coding on the text editor of the map can be seen immediately on the html map doc since the local host is constantly updating the files.

To connect the collision data to the base map, a map load function was used to link the id called collisions along with the data file url and the settings to display the collisions on the map as circles. Also the circle radius based on 0 to 5 was linked with their own selected colours and circle-opacity to 0.8 so depending on how many casualties occur they will have their own colour and partially transparent so they will not bock each other.

With the data now linked to the base map, a legend was created in the code by making a div section inside of the console.  Additionally, to this some CSS was added to style the colour gradient so it matches the colours of the circles.

This is what the map will look like with the data and legend.

Adding Time Slider and Interactivity

To add a time slider the slide bar function was added as a div to the body of the html document.  This will pull information of the time of accidents and display them on the map. To add the interactive a filter was added to obtain the time of collisions from the database.  The coding will be shown below along with a screen shot of the functional map.

Final Touches

The map is almost complete, the last function that was added to it was a filter that looks at the automobile collisions that occurred during the week compared to during the weekend.  To create this an if function was added to the text editor so that if a collision occurred on a Saturday it would be false, true.  This allows the data to show for week days compared to weekends. This is seen in the coding below. To add the function that allows you to decide on what part of the data to look at another div class session was added to filter the days.

The below script shows the div class session that created the slider bar and button selection for the final map legend.

Final Map

Below is screen shots different settings selected for the interactive map.

App Building for the Technically Challenged Cartographer

By Kevin Duffin

Geovis Project Assignment @RyersonGeo SA 8905 Fall 2018

Creating a custom web mapping application can seem like a daunting task for an individual without a whole lot of technical experience. These individuals, myself included, can feel as though they must first learn computer science before they are able to perform web mapping. However, there are a variety of web services which allow for the creation of powerful geovizualization application without the detailed knowledge of computer programming.

One such service is ESRI’s Web Appbuilder for ArcGIS.

Web Appbuilder is an application hosted on ArcGIS online which allows users to add functionality to custom web maps. An exciting feature of the Web Appbuilder is the ability to create maps not only in 2D, but also in 3D via the scene view in Web Appbuilder.

The scene view environment allows users to create a variety of 3D interactive mapping applications on a virtual globe. Navigation around the virtual world is incorporated, and various customization are possible via a variety of out of the box functionalities which can be easily incorporated to any application.

Pretty great right? Follow along and learn how to make a 3D web app!

Introduction to my data

The economies of many nations around the world, including Canada, rely very heavily on natural resource use. In recent times there has been a push by many countries to decouple their economies from natural resource use to both increase the sustainability of their economy, and to decrease their environmental impact.

Material footprint is a measure of domestic material use developed by Wiedmann, T. O., Schandl, H., Lenzen, M., Moran, D., Suh, S., West, J., and Kanemoto, K in 2015. The material footprint(MF) of a nation is the total amount global raw materials extraction that can directly attributed to the final demand of that nations economy.

When developing the metric, Weidmann et al determined the MF per capita of every nation in the world. The group also calculated the MF per capita for various material types, such as biomass materials, construction materials, fossil fuels, and metal ores. I joined Weidmann et al.’s MF data to a country shapefile using ArcMap and the resulting shapefile was exported and saved to my local computer. This is the data I used to create my geovisualization project.

The goal of my project was to create a web mapping application which allows the user to view the MF data on a virtual globe, and toggle between material types. By viewing which material types are important to various nations, the user can then make inferences about sustainability of those nations.

Getting Started: Publishing Layers to ArcGIS Online

In order to create the web application, I first needed to publish the spatial data to ArcGIS Online. To do this I first logged in to my ArcGIS online account. If you do not have an ArcGIS Online account, you can create a free personal account or sign up through your organization, such as university or business. Once signed in, navigate to the “My Content” tab and click the “Add Item” button. For my project I added the MF data from my computer. If your data is saved on your local computer, ensure that it is in ZIP format. I added the MF layer six times, as I had six layers I wanted to display on my application. I named one layer the Material Footprint, four layers using the material groups, and one representing the select few countries which did not have data.

Creating the Map

Once the layers were uploaded, I navigated to the “Create” button and hit “map”. This opened a map viewer tab where I was able to create the basemap for my application on a 2D surface. I added the six layers to the map viewer and began making the basemap. The “change style” tab was used to classify and select a colour scheme for each layer. I then configured pop- ups to display the MF value of a nation when a country is selected. Once I was happy with all the layers, I then saved the layers and the map, and navigated back to “My Content”.

Creating the Web Scene

I next needed to display the layers I just created in a 3D environment. From the “Create Tab”, I selected “Create Scene”. A scene viewer page opened and the virtual 3D globe which I used to display my layers was generated.  Using the “Modify Scene” tab, I added my six layers that I formatted in the map view from my content.  As this scene will become the base of the mapping application, it is important that I configured all the desired setting in the scene view, as these settings will not be able to be changed in the application itself. For example, I altered the order of the layers in my legend, chose a basemap, specified the suns position in the sky, and optimized the performance of the scene in scene settings by ensuring the 3D graphics slide bar was set to Performance rather than quality.  I then saved the scene and navigated back to “My Content”.

Creating the Web App

In the “Create” tab, I then created an App using the Web Appbuilder. In the following “Create a web app” pop up, I specified 3D and gave the app a title, a tag, and a brief summary.

I then needed to specify to Scene which I wanted to use as the baselayer for my app. I navigated to the Scene I just created through the “Choose web scene” button in the scene setting window. This then projected my 3D MF layers onto the virtual globe into the map. I then navigated to the theme window  and chose a graphic theme for my application.

Adding Functionality

Functionality is added to Web Appbuilder applications through widgets. Widgets are tools that can be added to the application. These tools perform a variety of functions. Also, the number of widgets you can incorporate into an app is based on the theme you have selected, so choose wisely. In my application I chose four main widgets, Legend, About, Layer List and 3D Extrusion. The legend widget simply adds a legend to the app which updates depending on the layer being displayed. I configured the About widget to display text introducing the application. The layer List is the widget which enables the toggling between MF layers. Fnally, the 3D widget allows for several different 3D functionalities. I selected the “Area Extrusion” visualization type to extrude the countries based on their Material Footprint per Capita Values. Along with the 3D extrusion, a display bar is added the app which displays the MF values of each nation. By clicking on a nation name in the display bar, the view automatically zooms to that country. Neat!

Finishing Touches

After all the functionality was added to the application, I added a few finishing touches. A proper summary and description were added to the Web App page, and a simple splash widget was added to introduce the application.

Try it out here!

Try the application out here, and thanks for following along!

https://ryerson.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer3d/index.html?id=b72c5f9cb9194a1abbff695a7b5b275f

 

Invasive Species in Ontario: An Animated-Interactive Map Using CARTO

By Samantha Perry
Geovis Project Assignment @RyersonGeo, SA8905, Fall 2018

My goal was to create an animated time-series map using CARTO to visualize the spread of invasive species across Ontario. In Ontario there are dozens of invasive species posing a threat to the health of our lakes, rivers, and forests. These intruding species can spread quickly due to the absence of natural predators, often damaging native species and ecosystems, and resulting in negative effects on the economy and human health. Mapping the spread of these invasive species is beneficial for showing the extent of the affected areas which can potentially be used for research and remediation purposes, as well as awareness for the ongoing issue. For this project, five of the most problematic or wide-spread invasive species were included in an animated-interactive map to show their spatial and temporal distribution.

The final animated-interactive map can be found at: https://perrys14.carto.com/builder/7785166c-d0cf-41ac-8441-602f224b1ae8/embed

Data

  1. The first dataset used was collected from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry and contained information on invasive species observed in the province from 1982 to 2012. The data was provided as a shapefile, with polygons representing the affected areas.
  2. The second dataset was downloaded from the Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) Ontario website. The dataset included information about invasive species identified between 2010 and 2018. I obtained this dataset to supplement the Ontario Ministry dataset in order to provide a more up-to-date distribution of the species.

Software
CARTO is a location-intelligence based website that offers easy to use mapping and analysis software, allowing you to create visually appealing maps and discover key insights from location data. Using CARTO, I was able to create an animated-interactive map displaying the invasive species data. CARTO’s Time-Series Widget can be used to display large numbers of points over time. This feature requires a map layer containing point geometries with a timestamp (date), which is included in the data collected for the invasive species.

CARTO also offers an interactive feature to their maps, allowing users control some aspects of how they want to view the data. The Time-Series Widget includes animation controls such as play, stop, and pause to view a selected range of time. In addition, a Layer Selector can be added to the map so the user is able to select which layer(s) they wish to view.

Limitations
In order to create the map, I created a free student account with CARTO. Limitations associated with a free student account include a limit on the amount of data that can be stored, as well as a maximum of 8 layers per map. This limits the amount of invasive species that can be mapped.

Additionally, only one Time-Series Widget can be included per map, meaning that I could not include a time-series animation for each species individually, as I originally intended to. Instead, I had to create one time-series animation layer that included all five of the species. Because this layer included thousands of points, the map looks dark and cluttered when zoomed out to the full extent of the province (Figure 1). However, when zoomed in to specific areas of the province, the points do not overlap as much and the overall animation looks cleaner.

Another limitation to consider is that not all the species’ ranges start at the same time. As can be seen in Figure 1 below, the time slider on the map shows that there is a large increase in species observations around 2004. While it is possible that this could simply be due to an increase in observations around that time, it is likely because some of the species’ ranges begin at that time.

Figure 1. Layer showing all five invasive species’ ranges.

Tutorial

Step 1: Downloading and reviewing the data
The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry data was downloaded as a polygon shapefile using Scholars GeoPortal, while the EDDMapS Ontario dataset was downloaded as a CSV file from their website.

Step 2: Selection of species to map
Since the datasets included dozens of different invasive species in the datasets, it was necessary to select a smaller number of species to map. Determining which species to include involved some brief research on the topic, identifying which species are most prevalent and problematic in the province. The five species selected were the Eurasian Water-Milfoil, Purple Loosestrife, Round Goby, Spiny Water Flea, and Zebra Mussel.

Step 3: Preparing the data for upload to CARTO
Since the time-series animation in CARTO is only available for point data, I had to convert the Ontario Ministry polygon data to points. To do this I used ArcMap’s “Feature to Point” tool which created a new point layer from the polygon centroids. I then used the “Add XY Coordinates” tool to get the latitude and longitude of each point. Finally, I used the “Table to Excel” conversion tool to export the layer’s attribute table as an excel file. This provided me with a table with all invasive species point data collected by the Ontario Ministry that could be uploaded to CARTO.

Next, I created a table that included the information for the five selected species from both sources. I selected only the necessary columns to include in the new table, including; Species Name, Observation Date, Year, Latitude, Longitude, and Observation Source. This combined table was then saved as an excel file to be uploaded to CARTO.

Finally, I created 5 additional tables for each of the species separately. These were later used to create map layers that show each species’ individual distribution.

Step 4: Uploading the datasets to CARTO
After creating a free student account with CARTO, I uploaded the six datasets as excel files. Once uploaded, I had to change the “Observation Date” column from a “string” to “date” data type for each dataset. A “date” data type is required for the time-series animation to run.

Step 5: Geocoding datasets
Each dataset added to the map as a layer had to be geocoded. Using the latitude and longitude columns previously added to the Excel file, I geocoded each of the five species’ layers.

Step 6: Create time-series widget to display temporal distribution of all species
After creating a blank map, I added the Excel file that included all the invasive species data as a layer. I then added a Time-Series Widget to allow for the temporal animation. I then selected Observation Date as the column to be displayed, meaning that the point data will be organized by observation date. I chose to organize the buckets, or groupings, for the corresponding time-slider by year.

Since “cumulative” was not an option for the Time-Series layer, I had to use CARTCSS to edit the code for the aggregation style. Changing the style from “linear” to “cumulative” allowed the points to remain on the screen for the duration of the animation, letting the user see the entire species’ range in the province. The updated CSS code can be seen in the screenshots below.

Step 7: Creating five additional layers for each species’ range
Since I could only add one Time-Series Widget per map, and the layer with the animation looks cluttered at some extents, I decided to create five additional layers that show each of the species’ individual observation data and range.

Step 8: Customizing layer styles
After adding all of the layers, a colour scheme was selected where each of the species’ was represented by a different colour to clearly differentiate between them. Colours that are generally associated with the species were selected. For example, the colour purple was selected to represent Purple Loosestrife, which is a purple flowering plant. The “multiply” style option was selected, meaning that areas with more or overlapping occurrences of invasive species are a darker shade of the selected colour.

A layer selector was included in the legend so that users can turn layers on or off. This allows them to clearly see one species’ distribution at a time.

Step 9: Publish map
Once all of the layers were configured correctly, the map was published so it could be seen by the public.

Urban Development of San Francisco

By Hannah Burdett

SA8905 Geovisualization Project, Ryerson University

The Development of San Francisco

San Francisco is located in the center of Northern California. It started as a base for the gold rush of 1849, the city quickly became one of the most populated cities in the United States. Shortly thereafter, San Francisco was devastated by the 1906 earthquake. Development peaked in the 1900’s as San Francisco rebuilt areas demolished by the earthquake and fires to compensate the growing population. During the 1930’s the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge were opened. Additionally, during World War II, San Francisco was a major mainland supply point and port of embarkation for the war in the Pacific. Both factors led to another peak in construction. After World War II, many American military personnel who had fallen in love with the city while leaving for or returning from the Pacific settled in the city. This led to promoting the development of the Sunset District, Visitacion Valley, and the total build-out of San Francisco. Starting in the latter half of the 1960’s, San Francisco became most recognized for the hippie movement. Currently, San Francisco has become known for finance and technology industries. There is a high demand for housing, driven by its close proximity to Silicon Valley, and a low supply of available housing has led to the city being one of America’s most expensive places to live.

Data

The data used for the time series animation was imported from data.gov. Data.gov is a repository for the US Governments open source data. The imported data included a Land use Shapefile for San Francisco. The shapefile included information such as land use, shape area, street address, street number, etc. The land use shapefile also included the year the building was built. The building years range from 1848 to 2016 displaying 153 years of urbanization. The buildings were represented as polygons throughout San Francisco. Additionally, a grey scale base map from ArcGIS Pro was displayed to create a more cohesive map design.

 

 

Time Series Animation

To develop the reconstruction of San Francisco throughout the years, both QGIS and ArcGIS Pro were utilized. Both platforms were used so to provide a comparison between time series animation tools from an open source application and a non-open source application.

QGIS is an open source geographic information systems application that provides data visualization, editing, and analysis through functions and plugins. To create the time series animation the Time Manager plugin was utilized. The Time Manager plugin animates vector features based on a time attribute. For this study the time attribute was the years built.

ArcGIS Pro is the latest professional desktop GIS from Esri. ArcGIS Pro enables users to view, explore, analyze, edit and share maps and data. Unlike QGIS, no additional plugins are required to create the animated time series.

QGIS Methodology

To generate the time series in QGIS, the land use shapefile was downloaded and opened in QGIS. The attribute table from the land use shapefile was then exported and opened in Excel so that the yrbuilt column could be reformatted to meet QGIS Time Manager requirements. The yrbuilt column had the data presented as YYYY format for building dates. QGIS Time Manager requires timestamps to be in YYYY-MM-DD. To correct the format, -01-01 was added to the end of each building year. The modified values were then saved into a new column called yrbuilt1. The Excel sheet was then imported into QGIS and joined to the land use shapefile.

In QGIS, each of the buildings was presented as polygons. The shapefile symbology was changed from single symbology to quantified symbology. In other words, the symbology for each of the polygons was broken down to seven classes defined by years. Each class was then distinguished by color, so that one may differentiate the oldest building from the newest buildings. Furthermore, a grey scale basemap was added to create a more cohesive map.

Furthermore, in the Time Manager settings, “Add Layer” was selected. The land use shapefile was chosen as the Layer of interest. The start time was set to the yrbuilt1 attribute, whereas the end time was set to “No end time – accumulate features”. This allows newer buildings to be added without older buildings being removed from the map. For the animation, each time frame will be shown for 100 milliseconds. The Time Manager plugin was then turned on so that the time series may run.

 

In order to export the time series animation, Time Manager offers an “Export Video” option. However, this exports the animation as an image series, not as an actual video. To correct this, the image series was uploaded to Mapbox where additional Mapbox styles were used to render the map. It was then exported as a Gif from Mapbox.

ArcGIS Pro Methodology

In ArcGIS Pro, the land use shapefile was imported. The symbology for each of the polygons was then broken down to seven classes defined by years. The same colours utilized in QGIS were applied to the classes in ArcGIS Pro to differentiate between the building years. Within the layer’s properties, the Layers Time was selected as “each feature has a single time field”. Furthermore, the start and end times were set to the newest and oldest building years. The number of steps were assigned a value of sixteen. In View, the animation was added, and the Time Slider Steps were imported. The time frames were set to match the QGIS animation so that both time series animations would run at the same speed. The time series animation was then exported as a Gif.

Final Animated Map

Finally, to create a cohesive animated map the exported Gif’s were complied together in PowerPoint. Additional map features, such as a legend, were designed within PowerPoint. A bar graph was added along the bottom of the map to show years of peak building construction. The final time series map was then exported as a .mp4 and upload to YouTube.

ArcPro Animation of 1923 Canoe Trip in Algonquin Park

By Sarah Medland

Geovis Course Project @RyersonGeo, SA8905, Fall 2018

Context

While searching the web for historic maps to inspire this project I came across the personal website of Bob and Diane McElroy. Their website includes an extensive personal collection of present and historic records of the natural environment within Ottawa Valley and Algonquin Park. The collection of thoughts and logs on their site consist of those of their ancestors – dating back many decades from now. The following map is a section of the one which was chosen for the purpose of this assignment. It dates back to 1921:

In July of 1923, a group of 4 men led by a guide embarked on a 12-day canoe-trip, creating a log of their route as they traveled. The map log included handwritten details by W. H. McConnell about wildlife, weather, and their experience in the Park.

Purpose:

 to animate an artistic rendering of a historic canoeing route which…

 – brings to life a historic map by integrating it with modern GIS technology

– reveals information from approx. a hundred years prior about an ever-popular canoeing area

Methods

To begin, the map was download as a JPEG and brought into ArcMap. A DMTI Spatial minor water bodies Shapefile was added. Using this present-day layer, labelled by lake name, it was fairly easy to align this with the lakes from the historic map. Some challenges arose as the map is from 1921 therefore its accuracy is questionable, however, I was able to geo-reference the map fairly well.

Historic Map in ArcMap where it was georeferenced to a present-day water bodies layer

Next, DEM tiles were downloaded from Scholar’s Geoportal. These were converted into a TIN using the raster to TIN tool in ArcMap, and then into TIN nodes using the TIN node tool. This allowed the tiles to be combined into one continuous TIN using the Create TIN tool which could be clipped to the extent of the map surface. Once the elevation surface was made, the map could be given height.

The map surface after it was draped over an elevated TIN surface and atmospheric effects were applied

To visualize the canoe route, a line Shapefile was created over the route drawn on the map. Campsites were also added as a point Shapefile which included a ‘Date’ field in the attribute table. In the ArcGIS Pro Global setting the map was draped over the TIN surface and campsites symbolized in 3D with the dates labelled.

An example of some of the original annotations on the map

Lastly, a animation following the canoe route was created in ArcGIS Pro. The animation was created to guide the viewer along the route of the 1923 trip and included annotations such as those above and historic pictures from the time period.

Results: The following video is the final product:

Earthquake Browser Web Application for the Country of Iran

Author: Atanaz Dorrani Arab
GeoVis Project Assignment @ RyersonGeo, SA 8905, Fall 2018

The website of Iranian Seismological Center (ISC) is popular not only among the geologist, geophysicist and seismotectonics specialists, but also the general public. When an earthquake happens, people who felt the temblor tend to know its location and magnitude in the shortest time possible. The ISC website is the quickest way to obtain information regarding the latest earthquake. It gives details of time and location of the earthquakes and visualizes earthquakes spatial distribution across the country. However, the website is not user-friendly and provides date and time location for a limited number of earthquakes and maps the location of earthquakes for a period of only 24 hours.

The Earthquake Browser is an effort to make a user-friendly web app, which is easy to use and can serve both the general public and seismotectonics specialists.

The web app is designed to have three main section:

  • A section to display the spatial distribution of the earthquakes on map
  • A section that provides a list of earthquakes, which provides detailed information regarding each earthquake including magnitude, location, longitude, latitude, time.
  • A section which visualizes the frequency distribution of earthquakes by year in form of a vertical bar chart. This part is more beneficial to the specialists, as this chart can give general information about the seismic structure of earth within political borders of Iran.

To use this app users need to enter a time period for which they want to obtain information about the occurred earthquakes. They can also narrow down their search by selecting a magnitude range.

The earthquakes data are being retrieved online from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) website each time a user select a time period and a magnitude range.

HTML, JavaScript and CSS are the markup, programming and style languages that are used to create the earthquake browser web application. HTML is used to describe the structure of information on the web application; CSS is used for controlling the appearance; and the functionality is programmed by JavaScript. Four libraries were utilized in designing this web application:

  • Mapbox GL JS used for the web mapping tool, due to the variety of visually pleasant map designs.
  • D3.js used for the dynamic data visualization in the chart section of the app.
  • jQuery used for sending Ajax request to USGS server.
  • Font-Awesome Library used for adding icon fonts which are displayed in the sidebar of the web app. Icon fonts are just fonts. But, instead of containing letters, they contain symbols and glyphs. They give the web app a more graphic design.

 

Welcome to the app

When a user opens the web application on the browser, a map centered to the Iran’s political border would be displayed. A side bar with three icon fonts designed on the left side of the app let user to navigate to different sections of the web application. Each icon font presents one of the web app’s sections and its functionality.

The hamburger menu directs users to the place where the time period and the magnitude range should be inputted. The date-time field is set on the current local date-time of the user’s time zone as the default date-time in the app. The web app also requests user to not to enter dates prior to January 01, 1900; since there is no instrumental record of the earthquakes before the year 1900.

It is probable that users made some mistakes in filling up the fields of this section, such as entering a start date greater than the end date, entering maximum magnitude smaller than minimum magnitude, entering a date exceeding the current data-time, or entering a date prior to January 01, 1900.

When a user submits the request containing any of these mistakes, an alert with an appropriate message, which corresponds to the specific occurred error pops up and warn the users to correct it. Aside from the alerts, when users input a date-time which exceeds the current date-time or is prior to 1900, the box around the field of date-time changes from solid black line to dashed orange line to let the user know that something is not right before submitting a request. The figure below shows examples of these alerts and how they look on screen.

Additionally, another alert is also designed to notify user when there is no earthquake occurred for the selected time period and magnitude range. When no data received from USGS server this alert would pop up.

USGS provided a web API for access to its earthquake data and sending requests to its server. When a user fills out the date-time and magnitude fields, a URL based on the parameters defined by the USGS API documentation and the values entered by the user will be created and  will be sent to the USGS server.

In that URL request, an area which matches the Iranian borders needed to be defined; so the USGS only sends data for earthquakes that occurred in Iran. The area needs to be defined by a rectangular extent, a boundary box defined by 4 lats & longs, which contains the country of Iran. Although when USGS sends earthquake data the, information contains the country names in the location parameter; there is no way to narrow down the URL request based on the name of the countries. Thus, the received earthquakes data from USGS contains earthquakes that occurred out of the borders of the country.

After receiving the data form USGS server in the GeoJSON format, the data will be filtered by the name of country available in the location parameter. Those earthquakes which does not include the name “Iran” in their location will be removed from the data.

Then, user can view the spatial distribution of the earthquakes on map based on the filtered data. User is able to zoom in to places where there are many events occurred. A legend is also displaying on bottom right corner of the map to help reader get an idea of the earthquakes’ magnitude. A color is assigned to each magnitude with a round number (the magnitude ranges from 2 to 8). The color selection is inspired by USGS color scheme for earthquakes magnitudes. The color of the points representing earthquakes changes relative to the magnitude and changes within the range of selected colors. Earthquakes with greater magnitudes are also have larger points. This helps making the larger earthquakes, which are kind of more important, more visible. The figure below show the map after the earthquakes data had been received,  filtered, and displayed on map.

The exact magnitude of the earthquake can be found by clicking on the its point on the map. In addition to the magnitude, user can find a row number, which corresponds to the row number in the earthquakes’ list section.

By going to the list section, user can find extra information about that exact earthquake. This list is also beneficial when user is just looking for the latest earthquakes in order to find out the earthquake exact location and magnitude.

In the chart section of the app, a vertical bar chart is showing the frequency of events by year for the selected time period and magnitude range. The Y axis shows the earthquakes frequency and the X axis shows the years. For making this chart, the earthquakes data received from USGS will be categorized by year. The years will be displayed on the X axis and the count of earthquakes in each  category will be displayed on the Y axis. When the user places the mouse on each bar of the chart, the exact number of earthquakes in that year will be displayed. This makes the chart more readable when the X axis includes a wide range of years.

Lexical Distance and Linguistic Diversity in the Balkans: A Network Map

By Zeljko Bavcevic

Geovis Class Project @RyersonGeo, SA8905, 2018

  1. Introduction

The purpose of this series of posts is to serve as a record of my work on the SA8905 Geovisualization project. The broad aim of this project is to explore the complex relationship between language and geography, and each serves as a mediating factor on the other. I have long been fascinated by how geography has an impact on language and on populations, borders and culture by proxy. Specifically, I was hoping to understand how changes in the traversability of landscapes would impact migrations of people and thus impact language.

Over the course of research phase of this project, I realized that conducting the project on all of the languages of the world would require a large amount of data collection and cleaning, such that was considerably beyond the temporal scope of a single class. As such, I narrowed my goal to examining only the geography of language in the Balkan Peninsula, and how they related to one another in terms of linguistic diversity, lexical distance and speaker population.

  1. Research

The first stage in this process required finding data to operationalize my target variables. This proved more difficult than I had first expected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is no single, global set of agreed upon variables for understanding language. Instead there are a number of competing variable sets each maintained by different organizations (with very different incentives).

Eventually I narrowed my focus on three primary linguistic variables for visualization, these are:

  1. Speaker Population: The number of individuals in the world estimated to speak a certain language. The value is largely based on a projection.

 

  1. Lexical Distance: A linguistic variable measuring the conceptual distance between languages by comparing each along a number of criteria such as common words, verb formations and other comparative measures.

 

  1. Linguistic Diversity: An index score that measures the different types of languages, dialects or variations spoken within the regions of the primary language.

 

  1. Data:

The data for these variables are generated and maintained by two primary organizations, SIL International and Unesco. SIL Interational compiles data on a number of relevant linguistic variables for sale to organizations. Unesco on the other hand is an international non-profit organization. The two data sets are very different in their methodologies and as such cannot be combined or used in conjunction. For this purpose, I elected to only use one of the data sets. Although the Unesco data was free, the format it was kept in would have required a laborious process of cleaning and transformation before it could easily be used in my model. As such, I reached out to SIL international for a quote and acquired the data I needed. It must be noted, for the purposes of transparency, that SIL is a Christian organization and there have been several concerns about its methodology and incentive structure. To assess the impact of thee on my outcome, I did a brief comparison between a sub-sample of the UNESCO and SIL data sets and was satisfied that it was within acceptable parameters.

During my research, I had found a number of illustrations of lexical distance. Most often these would take the form of node or network charts depicting the different languages (Figure 1).

Lexical Distance
Figure 1: Lexical Distance Network

However, these were all static, non-spatial and often did not take into account other relevant linguistic variables such as linguistic diversity within a language class. As such, I wanted my own visualization to be dynamic, interactive, spatial and containing other relevant linguistic variables. To this end I needed to find a technology or platform that would allow me sufficient customizability and interactions. Inspired by the network or node maps I had consistently seen throughout my research phase, I knew that I wanted to build on this concept, adding a spatial and interactive component.

  1. Technology

I considered a number of options, the first and most obvious was using Python to code a network map using the Gephi platform. While pure coding would offer the most freedom and customizability, hosting the various tools I needed would prove very tedious and costly. As such, I set out in search of a hosted node or network analysis platform. After considerable research into a number of possible candidates, I opted for kumu.io.

Kumu was selected because it allowed me the freedom of coding most of my map to my specifications (On top of having a very user friendly UI), while also hosting all of my data and tools natively. This reduced the technical “surface area” of the project, which reduces opportunities for code breaking bugs and cross platform communications errors. Paying the modest membership fee, I began adding my data to Kumu.

  1. Execution

The first stage of development was loading my SIL data into Kumu. This was made easy using Kumu’s data cleaning tool. This allows the user to make sure all the input data meets kumu’s formatting requirements and even allows the user to dynamically change spreadsheet documents before upload.


Kumu’s Upload Wizard

After this was complete I created a bi-directional connection between each language (or element in network analysis parlance). This resulted in an ugly and incomprehensible visual bundle of connections. The next stage of the process would be coding the various variable symbolizes, interface options (adding a search, zoom and selection toolbar).


Kumu’s Advanced Code Based Editor

This was done using Kumu’s advance coding editor and I encountered no issues during this stage. However, when I attempted to add the polygon of the various countries of the Balkan Peninsula, the map visualization would simply vanish and I was not able to trouble shoot this with any success. As such, I had to ultimately abandon the spatial component of the project due to the constraints of time. I was still very satisfied with the resulting output.


    The Final Output

  1. Challenges

A number of challenges were encountered during the course of this project. The primary issue was that the geographic overlay failed to load. My every attempt to fix this was unsuccessful and ultimately this radically undermined completing the project as I had conceived it at the design stage. Nonetheless, I still believe that the other elements of the project still satisfied the project requirements of producing a novel and interesting geovisualization.

Literacy Percentages and Global Prevalence of HIV Rates

by Anwar Abu Ghosh

Geovis Project Assignment @ryersonGeo,

SA8905,  Fall 2018

 

For my geo-visualization project, I have decided to use  ArcGIS Online which is a web-based interactive program to visualize the data. The other dataset was extracted from the world health organization was in the format of a comma delimited values (CSV) file which contains the rates and ranks of some countries in the worlds suffering from HIV. Another data set that was used on this project was literacy rates across different countries in the world, which was downloaded as a CSV from United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) website.

ArcGIS Online Definition

ArcGIS Online is a cloud-based application that is used to visualize and map data in a dynamic and interactive method. GIS stands for Geographic Information System, and the method this application works is by adding different layers to create different maps and visualize data. It can be used for 2D and 3D mapping, and in this project, I will be using the proportional mapping. It is a great collaborative web-based application with a secure infrastructure to store data, view data, add layers, manipulate data and share maps with others. This web-based application has base maps and data layers integrated into it, therefore many preinstallations may not be required.  I will be using the 30-day free trial of ArcGIS Online with limited features and storage.

ArcGIS Desktop

Due to the limited features in the ArcGIS Online free trial, many properties are disabled such as the join feature and so using a different software to join two datasets was required. To be able to create a choropleth map in ArcGIS Online, the data must be provided in a shapefile (SHP) extension format. Therefore, the need to use ArcMap to join a country shapefile to the literacy rates CSV was needed. The layer was first added by right clicking ‘Layers’ in the table of content and browsing to the country shapefile location that was originally downloaded from thematicmapping.org. Then right-click the added layer and selecting ‘Joins and Relates’ then ‘joins’. For the ‘1. Choose the field in this layer that the join will be based on field select the country column in the shapefile. As for the ‘2. Choose the table to join this layer or load the table from disk’ select the literacy CSV file.  Meanwhile for the ‘3. Choose the field in the table to base the join on’ which should be referring to the country name column in the literacy data. Allow the join to retain all records and then press okay. The altered country shapefile will have the literacy columns appended to the end of the shapefile. Now that the shapefile is generated some data cleanup such as deleted unnecessary columns may be done before exporting the shapefile. Shapefile exporting is the was ArcGIS saves the new shapefile and this simple step can be done by right clicking the layer and selecting ‘Data’ then ‘Export Data’ to save the updated shapefile to the desired location. Note to have the shapefile ready for ArcGIS online; the shapefile should be saved in its own folder as multiple files will automatically be generated when creating the file and then the folder should be zipped.

ArcGIS Online Application

Adding the first layer

The first layer in this map will be the literacy data. Start by successfully logging in to ArcGIS Online and selecting the map option in the top bar. Then browse to the map option, click the ‘Add’ option and select the ‘Add Layer from File’. Then browse to the zipped file that was created from the previous step in ArcMap. To create the choropleth map, the percentage column is to be selected as ‘Shows an attribute to show’ and then counts and amounts (Color). Selecting blue from the symbols settings then ‘fill’, this step is done to represent the literacy data where the light shade indicates a low literacy rate and a dark blue indicates a high literacy rate in the country.

Adding Second Layer

Selecting from the toolbar ‘Add layer by file’ from the add setting.  Browse to the csv file stored on the computer. Many options will appear on the way the file is to be imported. Using the located feature by selecting ‘by World’ from the drill down option. Match the country column in the HIV data to the country from the preexisting data in ArcGIS Online. The data will then be imported to the application in point form. Create a proportion map by using the proper setting of selecting the proportion based on HIV rates. The color used in displaying the data points is red since the red ribbon is an awareness symbol of HIV/AIDS.

Since many colors and shades are being used in this interactive map a simple light grey canvas was used as a basemap to make the colors and symbols more visible to the reader. As for the legend, it can be found on the left-hand side of the application right under the toolbar. The legend consists of two components the proportionate layer for the HIV/AIDS data where the symbol refers to the percentage of HIV/AIDS rates. The other component refers to the literacy rates where the shade of blue refers to the rate of literacy rate in a country.

 

Feel free to take a look at the map through this link https://arcg.is/1uPu14

References

http://thematicmapping.org/downloads/world_borders.phphttps://data.unicef.org/topic/education/literacy/

http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.617?lang=en